Applied Behavior Analysis is based upon more than 50 years of scientific research concerned with applying techniques based upon principles of learning, to change behavior in social settings. It is an applied form of behavior modification which helps children and individuals affected by wide range of behavioral and developmental disorders. Some of the hallmark techniques used in ABA with children are: -
The Picture Exchange Communication System, or PECS, allows people with little or no communication abilities to communicate using pictures. People using PECS are taught to approach another person and give them a picture of a desired item in exchange for that item. By doing so, the person is able to initiate communication. A child or adult with autism can use PECS to communicate a request, a thought, or anything that can reasonably be displayed or symbolized on a picture card. PECS works well in the home or in the classroom.
While this is commonly used as a communication aid for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (AUTISM), it has been used with a wide variety of learners, preschoolers to adults who have various communicative, cognitive and physical impairments. PECS does not require complex or expensive materials since it uses picture symbols as the modality. PECS has been described as an emerging treatment shown to increase communication skills for individual with Autism.
TEACCH developed the intervention approach called “structured TEACCHing”, an array of teaching or treatment principles and strategies based on the learning characteristics of individuals with AUTISM, including strengths in visual information processing, and difficulties with social communication, attention and executive function. Structured teaching is not a curriculum, but instead is a framework to support achievement of educational and therapeutic goals. This framework includes:
SCERTS (Social Communication Emotional Regulation Transactional Support) is an innovative educational model for working with children with autism spectrum disorder (AUTISM) and their families. It provides specific guidelines for helping a child become a competent and confident social communicator, while preventing problem behaviours that interfere with learning and the development of relationships.
The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is a comprehensive behavioural early intervention approach for children with autism, ages 12-48 months. The early intervention programme integrates a relationship focused developmental model with the well validated teaching practices of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA).
SoSAFE! Provides teachers, counsellors and other professionals with simple visual tools to enhance the training of social, socio-sexual and social safety skills. The explicit, rule based format allows the learner to respond to situations, including intimate relationships, without having to make discretionary decisions, in response to their feelings or ‘early warning of signs’.
Sensory experiences include touch, movement, body awareness, sight, sound, smell, taste and the pull of gravity. The process of the brain processing and interpreting this information is called sensory integration. For most children sensory integration develops in the course of ordinary childhood activities. Motor planning ability is a natural outcome of this process, as this ability to adapt to incoming sensations. But for some children sensory integration does not develop as efficiently as it should. When this process is disordered, a number of problems in learning, development and behaviour may become evident.
Speech and Language Therapy provides treatment, support and care for children and adults who have difficulties with communication or with eating, drinking and swallowing. This means Speech and Language Therapist can help with different skills: to make someone easier to understand, help them communicate with others and to understand what others say to them.
Oro Motor Therapy is used in conjunction with other speech therapies. Oro Motor Therapy is to increase the awareness of the oral mechanism, to normalize oral tactile sensitivity, to improve the precision of volitional movements of oral structures for speech production, to increase differentiation of oral movements like dissociation, grading, fixing. Through Oro Motor Therapy we can improve feeding skills and nutritional intake.
Physiotherapy is often used in conjunction with other therapies. It helps with the development, rehabilitation and improvement of movement skills and performance. With children they work on gross motor skills such as sitting, standing and walking as well as improvement in strength, flexibility and endurance.
Play Therapy is to children what counselling is to adults. Play therapy utilizes play, children’s natural medium of expression, to help them express their feelings more easily through toys instead words. A dynamic interpersonal relationship between a child (or person of any age) and a therapist trained in paly therapy procedures who provides selected play materials and facilities the development of a safe relationship for the child (or person of any age) to fully express and explore self (feelings, thoughts, experiences and behaviours) through play, the child’s natural medium type of communication, for optimal growth and development.
Creativity can come in many forms, but it’s a part of what makes each one of us special in our own unique ways. Some people choose to express themselves through music or song. While others choosing Writing as a way to clear their mind and experience a healthy dose of pleasure. For children with special needs how they deal with the world is different from the rest of us. But there are definite ways to soothe their fears while helping them improve on a number of levels. In short, it’s an alternative form of therapy, that can help a child with special needs work through issues that are troubling to their development. This can include physical, emotional, mental or behavioural conditions and is designed to work with your child’s unique strengths on their own terms. Practicing any form of art has been shown to lead to increased motor skills, improved focus and a better mood especially if practiced in an environment that allows your child to relax and feel safe.
The most important outcome of teaching word recognition, “is that students learn to recognize real words, not simply sound out ‘nonsense’ words using phonics skills’. Direct instruction appears the most effective approach for improving word recognition skills in students with learning disabilities. Direct instruction refers to teaching skills in an explicit, direct fashion. It involves drill/repetition/practice.
Writing is one of the most difficult and complex task for kids. For kids with certain learning issues, it can be even more challenge. Writing forms an important part in child’s communication and in today’s education. Though writing programme, the child is taught to strengthen hand muscles and improve motor co-ordination.
Assessing pragmatic or conversational skills can be a challenge since conversations are dynamic and not static. Several key concepts must be considered as an individualized programe is developed for an individual with ASD. These include:
Integrated Listening System methodology integrates music, movement and language exercises for the purpose of improving brain functions. ILS trained for brain/body integration through a staged approach, starting with the fundamentals of sensory integration and then extending through more complex cognitive functions, including language, self-expression and social skills. iLs customized programmes can be tailored for skills and abilities. Symptoms addressed include: emotional regulation, social skills, anxiety, auditory and sensory processing, attention, concentration and sleep.
Extralesson is an assessment and intervention programe for children, and adolescents with learning and behavioural difficulties. The extralesson programe is based on the premise that learning difficulties are often due to disruptions in the developmental stages of the first seven years of life. This can result in poor spatial orientation, and body awareness, sensory processing challenges, retained early movement, patterns and early co-ordination difficulties.